The Renaissance Notion of Woman: A Study in the Fortunes of Scholasticism and Medical Science in European Intellectual Life

By Ian Maclean

This examine of the realm of scholarship and scholarly texts within the Renaissance, the so-called respublica literaria, offers insights into the highbrow infrastructure and modes of considered the interval through its exam of latest attitudes in the direction of girls. It addresses the questions: what's the idea of girl to be present in Renaissance texts, and the way does it evolve? what's the courting among the proposal of girl and that of intercourse distinction, and the way is intercourse distinction comparable in flip to different transformations and to the idea that of distinction itself? Theology, medication, ethics, politics, and legislations are tested in succeeding chapters. The threads of the research are then drawn jointly and Dr Maclean exhibits how the idea of lady used to be motivated via either forces of conservatism and forces which fostered switch, forces which have been to be came upon either contained in the confines of highbrow existence and past them. the ultimate part bargains a context for the certainty of eu Renaissance feminism and sketches its connections with social and political evolution, humanist scholarship, spiritual proposal and eventually difficulties of language and expression.

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14, in Universa medicina, p. 327, observed via los angeles Corde, G, 545). ninety De legibus connubialibus, 1. nine. ninety two, in Opera omnia, eleven. 143. ninety one Physiologia, VII. five, in Universae medicinae compendia, fos. 73—4. ninety two See G, 109. ninety three One Aristotelian locus (Historia animalium, in. 19 [521H 27]) indicates, even if, that they're much less liable to illnesses of the blood. ninety four See Mercado, 1. 2, G, 807-8. The Hippocratic locus which attributes all girl health problems to the uterus is in locations in males, advert. fin. (see Hippocrates, Opera omnia, ed. A. Foesius, Geneva, 1657, p. 423), mentioned by way of Du Laurens, Anatomica humani corporis historia, vn, q. eleven, p. 277. ninety five Mercado, II. 10, G, 927; Cremonini, Explanatio proemii librorum Aristotelis de physico auditu, Padua, 1596, fo. i6v. ninety six Mercado, eleven. 10, G, 925-45; this country is most typical in widows disadvantaged of coitus, in line with los angeles Roche, v, G, seventy four. See additionally Galen, De locis affectis, vi. five. ninety seven eleven. 4-10, G, 896ff. ninety eight The locus classicus is in Aristotle, Departibus animalium, eleven. 7 (6536 iff). See additionally Diepgen, in Scientia, LXXXIV, fifty five. ninety nine Anatomica humani corporis historia, vm, q. 10, p. 297. a hundred See Lemnius, Occulta naturae miracula, 1. four, pp. 15-16, and Mercado, sick. 7, C, 1011. a hundred and one See web page! , Paracelsus: an creation to philosophical drugs within the period of the Renaissance, Basle and N e w York, 1958, p. 122. 102 With wet humours particularly, Scaliger affiliates changeability, loss of stamina and over the top delicacy fnuxus; enervis; laboris impotens; deliciarum amator', Exercitationes, CCLXXIV). 103 For the presence of those principles in renowned literature, see Maclean, feminism in French literature, pp. 46ff. 104 Cf. Seneca, Epistolae, x c v : 'patinatae'. a hundred and five De caussis pulsuum, 111. 2. 106 1, G, no. 107 Akakia, G, 745; de Castro, De universa mulierum medicina, 1. 131. Du Laurens even accords them greater powers of brain ("memoria felicior, inventio subtilior, verborum quae animi conceptus experimunt copia maior', Anatomica humani corporis historia, vm, q. 2, p. 282). 108 Epistolae, cxxn, PL, xn. 1016: a Renaissance ordinary (see Caelius Rhodiginus, Lectiones antiquae (1517), Geneva, 1630, xui. 33, col. 718). 109 Summa, 11193,4. one hundred ten Adversaria seu commentarii medicinales, Cologne, 1615, U3r-5r. 111 See Mercado, eleven. 2, G, 882, the place he claims that malfunction of the uterus could make girls 'imbecilliores, ineptae advert actiones obeundas, tristes, taediosae'; and Mercuriale, 1. 2, G, 213 : 'passiones animi quod mirifice sterilitatem inducant, certum est: memini me legere apud quendam mulierem si in coitu ploret non posse concipere, sic etiam faciunt nimis timor, moeror et ira immodica'. 112 e . g . Plato, Timaeus, nine 1 D ; Aristotle, De generaiione animalium, 1. 2 [716a 15J; Historia animalium, vn. 2 [582a 33]; Plutarch, Symposium, in, q. four. 113 See R. Lenoble, Mersenne ou l. a. naissance du micanisme, Paris, 1943. 114 Medicina universa, p. 355. See additionally Metaphysics, A. four 110146 i6ff]. one hundred fifteen See Physics, eleven. 8—9 11986 loff), and De generaiione animalium, v. i [778a 290"]. 108 The Renaissance idea of lady u 6 'Multa fiunt ex necessitate naturae, quae non fiunt ex eius intentione', quoted by way of Henning Arnisaeus (d.

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