By Idan Landau
Experiencers--grammatical members that suffer a undeniable mental switch or are in one of these state--are grammatically certain. As gadgets (John scared Mary; loud song annoys me), experiencers demonstrate abnormal clusters of nonobject homes throughout diversified languages: their syntax is frequently common of indirect arguments and their semantic scope is ordinary of topics. within the Locative Syntax of Experiencers, Idan Landau investigates this difficult correlation and argues that experiencers are syntactically coded as (mental) destinations. Drawing on effects from a variety of languages and theoretical frameworks, Landau examines the far-reaching repercussions of this easy declare. Landau exhibits that every one experiencer gadgets are grammaticalized as locative words, brought through a dative/locative preposition. "Bare" experiencer items are in truth indirect, too, the preposition being null. This preposition debts for the indirect psych(ological) homes, attested in case alternations, cliticization, resumption, regulations on passive formation, etc. As locatives, item experiencers may perhaps suffer locative inversion, giving upward thrust to the typical phenomenon of quirky experiencers. whilst covert, this inversion endows item experiencers with extensive scope, attested up to speed, binding, and wh-quantifier interactions. Landau's synthesis hence presents a unique approach to the various oldest puzzles within the generative examine of mental verbs. The Locative Syntax of Experiencers deals the main accomplished description of the syntax of mental verbs so far, documenting their designated houses in additional than twenty languages. Its uncomplicated theoretical declare is quickly translatable into replacement frameworks. latest money owed of mental verbs both reflect on only a few languages or fail to include different theoretical frameworks; this examine takes a broader viewpoint, expert by way of findings of 4 many years of research
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Extra resources for The Locative Syntax of Experiencers (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs)
Levin and Rappaport 1995, chap. 6, (36)) to provide an explanation for the felicity of (230), Levin and Rappaport attract self sustaining issues. First, they are saying that in contrast to ECCS verbs, which predicate an unpredictable swap of nation in their argument, ICCS verbs describe predictable methods. of their phrases: ‘‘ﬂowers bloom and previous wooden decays within the average process occasions, however it is just incidental that tumbler breaks or door opens’’ (1995, 235). Then, notwithstanding, Levin and Rappaport notice that even ICCS verbs are present in locative inversion in basic terms on their stative feel, no longer on their switch of kingdom experience, as illustrated under for develop, that's ambiguous among ‘live rootedly’ and ‘increase in measurement or maturity’. (231) a. In our backyard grew a really hardy and pest-resistant number of corn. b. *In Massachusetts grows corn very slowly. this implies that the proper characterization of the proper limit on verb classification is just (232), which doesn't distinguish among ECCS and ICCS verbs. (232) switch of nation verbs are excluded from locative inversion. Contra Levin and Rappaport’s ﬁrst advice, I declare that (232) isn't reducible to (227a). specifically, the ‘‘predictability’’ try can't accurately symbolize the distribution of ECCS and ICCS verbs in locative inversion. particularly, any change-of-state verb—whether of the ECCS sort (229) or the ICCS sort (231b)—will fail to invert with a locative PP. every time any such verb a¤ords a secondary, existence/coming-intoexistence examining, locative inversion should be ﬁne. certainly, Levin and Rappaport detect that parallel to (231a), ECCS verbs like holiday and open are present in locative inversion in simple terms in that secondary experience. (233) a. Then broke the battle, on these lousy days in August, and the face of the area changed—I believe perpetually. b. beneath him opened a hollow space with aspects 2 hundred toes excessive. (Levin and Rappaport 1995, chap. 6, (33), (34)) LF Quirkiness Is LF Locative Inversion 123 extra facts that (232) is unrelated to the discourse of ‘‘informational lightness’’ is equipped through (234). (234) a. *In Iran widened the rift among the fundamentalists and the reformists. b. Over our heads glowed an unexpected item. regardless of the approximately idiomatic predictability in widened the rift, (234a) is ungrammatical. And although unusual items haven't any predictable houses, (234b) is grammatical. The distinction reﬂects the presence as opposed to absence of switch of nation. To summarize this element, (232) seems to be a real on locative inversion, as but irreducible to different elements. That the e¤ects of (232) are self sufficient of the discourse functionality of the development is essential, seeing that they appear in ‘‘experiencer’’-inversion, which has no discourse functionality, as i'll convey within the subsequent part. 2 ponder subsequent a believable outcome of (226a), particularly, the ban on clausal negation in locative inversion. (235) *Across the road didn’t walk gents in tuxedos. Negating the most occasion means that the postverbal NP isn't brought at the scene—in direct conﬂict with the discourse functionality of locative inversion.