The English Language: A Historical Introduction (Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics)

By Charles Barber, Joan C. Beal, Philip A. Shaw

The place does today's English come from? This new version of the bestseller by means of Charles Barber tells the tale of the language from its distant ancestry to the current day. based on call for from readers, a new bankruptcy on overdue smooth English has been further for this variation. utilizing dozens of primary texts, together with the English of King Alfred, Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Addison, the ebook tells you every little thing you want to learn about the English language, the place it got here from and the place it's going to. This version provides new fabric on English as a world language and explains the variations among the most sorts of English all over the world. transparent motives of linguistic principles and phrases make it the proper advent for college kids on classes in English language and linguistics, and for all readers desirous about language.

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This Scandinavian payment has left its mark on English place-names. universal Scandinavian place-name parts are via ‘village, homestead’, as in Grimsby ‘Grim’s village’; thorp ‘secondary cost, outlying farmstead’, as in Grimsthorpe; toft ‘building-site, plot of land’, as in Langtoft (where the 1st point capability ‘long’); and thwaite ‘woodland clearing, meadow’, as in Micklethwaite ‘large clearing’. a few place-names are extra distinctively Norwegian, a few extra Danish: the point thorp, for instance, was once infrequently utilized by the Norwegians in England, and is a Norsemen and Normans 139 br um r th No ia D a n e Danish Mercia l a English Mercia w Wales East Anglia London Wessex determine nine The department of britain among King Alfred and the Danes reliable signal of Danish payment (though it additionally happens sometimes in Anglo-Saxon place-names as a variation of throp). the most components of Norwegian payment have been within the north-west – in Lancashire and Cumbria; in different places within the Danelaw there have been Danes, the densest components of place-name formation being in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Norfolk. Scandinavian effect on English went much additional than place-names, even if. The English weren't exterminated by means of the Scandinavian settlers, however the latter have been sufficiently quite a few 140 The English Language to steer English speech. the particular numbers concerned are, even if, an issue of a few debate, and we needs to consider that during such circumstances the variety of settlers isn't the purely issue affecting the influence of payment on a local language. outdated English and previous Norse have been nonetheless quite comparable, and Englishmen and Danes might most likely comprehend one another, and decide up each one other’s language, with no an excessive amount of hassle. within the later OE interval we needs to visualize quite a few bilingual events. There will be Englishmen conversing previous Norse, and Danes talking outdated English, and after they didn’t be aware of a be aware within the different language they'd use a notice from their very own, might be giving it a pronunciation and inflections that they concept acceptable to the opposite language. occasionally they'd use a note within the different language yet provide it the that means of the corresponding shape of their personal language. And doubtless there have been little ones of combined marriages who may perhaps communicate either languages fluently. hence nice blending happened among the 2 languages. finally, previous Norse died out in England (it used to be already death in the course of King Cnut, at whose court docket English was once spoken), whereas English endured in use, yet now not sooner than a great deal of Scandinavian had obtained jumbled in with it. there are lots of methods of spotting Scandinavian phrases in English, even though actually a few phrases have been virtually exact in previous English and outdated Norse, and could supply an analogous bring about smooth English. a few phrases, despite the fact that, will be pointed out as of Scandinavian foundation as a result of their phonological shape. therefore the observe awe is unquestionably of Scandinavian beginning: the previous English shape is ege, stated ['eje], the 1st vowel having been replaced by means of front-mutation and the g palatalized to [j] via the next vowel, and it can result in a latest shape *ey (just as OE legen has produced our note lain).

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