By Kate Kearns
--generalized quantifier theory
--thematic roles and lexical conceptual structure
--tense and point, together with Discourse illustration Theory
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Extra resources for Semantics, Second Edition (Palgrave Modern Linguistics)
Real real actual Any attainable global during which Mohammed Ali exists and not gained the realm name is a global within which Cassius Clay exists and didn't win the area name ± (28b) and (28c) can't range honestly price. So in accordance with Quine's definition, modal contexts aren't opaque the place the substitution of same-referring names is anxious. Now ponder yes descriptions ± if we examine them as quantifiers, does modality have an effect on their interpretation? Take the Gagarin instance back. (29) Yuri Gagarin will possibly not were [the first guy in space]. to build the formulation, first stream the quantifier to the start and go away a variable instead: [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] Yuri Gagarin will possibly not were x Now circulation the modal operator to the start: ^ [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] Yuri Gagarin now not were x The final step is to symbolize Yuri Gagarin no longer were x utilizing negation and id: ^ [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] g x Opacity: Descriptions, Modality and Propositional Attitudes 107 To learn off the formulation, commence in the beginning: ^ `There is at the least one attainable global w such that . . . ' [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] `There is strictly something (in w) that is the 1st guy in house, and ``x'' refers to him' believe we have now selected an international during which the Russians introduced the 1st human into house, however the astronaut was once a guy known as Popov. Then x refers to Popov. Now for the remainder of the formulation: gx Gagarin isn't the comparable individual as x (in w) up to now so sturdy: this provides the predicted studying for Yuri Gagarin would possibly not were the 1st guy in house, that may be paraphrased as `Some astronaut except Gagarin could have been embarked on house first' ± this can be actual. there's additionally one other less believable analyzing for sentence (29). certainly, on condition that there are scopal expressions (not counting negation) within the sentence, we might count on it to be scopally ambiguous, having one other studying with the modal and quantifier within the contrary order, as in (30). (30) [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] ^ g x beginning back first and foremost of the formulation, we learn as follows: [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] `There is precisely something that's the 1st guy in house, and ``x'' refers to him . . . ' At this degree we haven't reached ^, which switches us into one other attainable international, so this quantifier is interpreted within the real global. there's in reality precisely one first guy in area, and that's Gagarin, so x refers to Gagarin during this formulation. continue: ^ `There is at the very least one attainable international w such that . . . ' gx `Gagarin isn't the similar individual as x (in w). ' 108 certain Descriptions we have now simply validated that x refers to Gagarin during this formulation, so the formulation is fake, simply as (23c) Yuri Gagarin would possibly not were Yuri Gagarin is fake. To sum up the substitutions within the examples repeated under: (31)a b c d e Yuri Gagarin would possibly not were Yuri Gagarin. ^g g Yuri Gagarin will possibly not were the 1st guy in house. ^ [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] g x [The x: FIRST guy IN SPACE(x)] ^ g x simply because names are inflexible designators, the 2 occurrences of the identify Yuri Gagarin in (31a) needs to consult with an analogous person.