New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin

By Andrew L Sihler

Like Carl Darling Buck's Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin (1933), this e-book is a proof of the similarities and transformations among Greek and Latin morphology and lexicon via an account in their prehistory. It additionally goals to debate the vital good points of Indo-European linguistics. Greek and Latin are studied as a couple for cultural purposes merely; as languages, they've got little in universal except their Indo-European history. hence the single method to deal with the ancient bases for his or her improvement is firstly Proto-Indo-European. the single strategy to make a reconstructed language like Proto-Indo-European intelligible and intellectually defensible is to provide a minimum of the various foundation for reconstructing its good points and, within the approach, to debate reasoning and technique of reconstruction (including a weighing of other reconstructions). the result's a compendious instruction manual of Indo-European phonology and morphology, and a vade mecum of Indo-European linguistics--the concentration consistently last on Greek and Latin. The non-classical assets for ancient dialogue are generally Vedic Sanskrit, Hittite, and Germanic, with occasional yet the most important contributions from outdated Irish, Avestan, Baltic, and Slavic.

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Mibi 'to me', tibi 'to you' < mihT, tibí < *mehei, *tebei (75, 84). tilia 'linden' : G τττελέα. sinister 'left' if from *senisteros (but its etymology is particularly uncertain). similis 'resembling', simul (SEMOL) 'at an identical time as', simplex 'simple'; yet maybe a result of following non excessive vowel, no such swap is visible in semel as soon as' < *semelom < *sm-meH¡-lo- and semper 'always'; all from PIE *sem-, *sm- 'same, one' (389. 1 and iB). PIE *iaeg- 'be full of life' (Ved. väja- 'strength') underlies either vigil 'alert', vigeö 'am lively', at the one hand, and vegetus 'vigorous' at the different. (For vegeo 'stir up' see forty six. 1. ) vitulus 'calf : G eraXov (Cos) 'yearling', U vitiufacc. pl. ·, finally from PIE *wet- 'year' (G /^έτος/έτος 'year'). L Minerva for O L MENERVA. Nihil, mihi should be distracted different types of the very common nil, mt, and tibi for *tebi should be stimulated by means of mihi. a. Proclitic weakening in preliminary syllables needs to POSTDATE the interval of L observe preliminary accessory (65, 146). therefore a few analogical strength needs to clarify disyllables like indo 'put in', impos 'powerless', infit 'begins', etc. a couple of kinds with en 'in' are attested in OL: ENDO, ENFITIARE 'to deny', although this can be not anything greater than the hesitation among E and ι that's universal in O L epigraphy. forty two. *e > L o ahead of τα, after τα (mostly consonant plus τα), or ahead of / pinguis (lyoa), yet topic to additional stipulations basically partially understood (the vowel of the next syllable it seems that being a factor). the most evidence are as follows. 1. *ew > *ow, even if via a vowel. PIE *newos 'new' > L novus : G vé(f)oç, Ved. nava-, Hitt. ne-e-u-it inst. sg. PIE *newn 'nine' > L novem : G evvtct, Ved. nava, move. niun. PIE *deruk- 'lead' > OL doue- > L dücö : pass. riuhan (61). a. This improvement is pan-Italic, and anything comparable is located in Celtic and BS: U nuvis 'more contemporary' (= L novius), OCS nova 'new', Lith. naüjas, Oír. ñaue < 'noue. a few Gaulish inserir«·! "-- stjn express ecu, alternating with ou in different instances; this is able to suggest that the Celtic innovation used to be later than the others and unconnected with them, other than that the attestations in ecu are ordinarily later than these in ou, and are top taken as a improvement FROM ou (or even *swo-, accordingly (183) so-. PIE *sivepnos 'sleep' > L somnus : Ved. svápna-, OE sraefit 'dream'. PIE *sii}esor- 'sister' > L sóror : Ved. svésar-, OE sweoster. PIE *swékuro- 'husband's father', *sivekrú- 'husband's mom' > L socer, socrus PHONOLOGY - VOWELS forty-one : G ¿κυράς, βκυρα (e from Vfe , 171); Ved. svásura-, svas'rü-; OE sivéor, sweger. PIE *sioe-dhH,- '(our) customized' > ÖL SVODALES > L sodâlës 'usual companions'.

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