By Volkan Kursun
This booklet provides an in-depth therapy of varied energy relief and pace enhancement suggestions in keeping with a number of offer and threshold voltages. an in depth dialogue of the resources of energy intake in CMOS circuits can be supplied while focusing totally on selecting the mechanisms during which sub-threshold and gate oxide leakage currents are generated. The authors current a finished evaluation of cutting-edge dynamic, static provide and threshold voltage scaling innovations and speak about the professionals and cons of offer and threshold voltage scaling strategies.
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Extra info for Multi-voltage CMOS Circuit Design
Desk nine. 1 A comparability of the overview hold up, energy Dissipation, PDP, and NML (for greatest opposite physique Biased Keeper) of SD and DVTVK Circuit concepts for KPR of two. 2 SD DVTVK relief review hold up (ps) persistent (mW) PDP (fJ) 291 116 60% 2625 1717 35% 764 199 seventy four% NML (mV) 478 427 À11% 160 DOMINO good judgment WITH VARIABLE THRESHOLD VOLTAGE KEEPER The aid in strength, for this reason, diminishes with reducing keeper dimension. end result of the power overhead of the dynamic physique bias generator circuit, the facility intake of DVTVK is thirteen% more than SD while the KPR is diminished to zero. 6. The PDP of the circuits can be illustrated in determine nine. eight to raised evaluate the influence of the variable threshold voltage keeper circuit method on circuit functionality and effort dissipation. SD has the next PDP compared to DVTVK for values of KPR more than zero. eight. As indexed in desk nine. 1, DVTVK lowers the PDP via seventy four% compared to SD for a KPR of two. 2. one other vital metric for domino circuits is the noise immunity. The circuit strategy degrades the noise immunity compared to SD, even supposing simply before everything of the overview part. This degradation happens for a quick period of time until eventually the brink voltage of the keeper is decreased for elevated noise immunity. The time hold up (td) firstly of the overview section, and then the keeper present force is elevated to the low-Vt point, depends on the worst case overview hold up of the domino gate. The degradation in noise immunity adjustments among eight% and eleven% lower than greatest opposite physique bias stipulations because the KPR is elevated from zero. 6 to two. 2. As proven in determine nine. 8(c), the noise immunity of DVTVK is similar to the noise immunity of SD every time a nil physique bias is utilized to the keeper. nine. three. 1. 2 more suitable Noise Immunity with similar hold up or strength features The DVTVK circuit process is proven to supply major hold up and gear mark downs for the same-size keeper in comparison to SD. as a result excessive competition present in SD circuits, the circuit review hold up and tool raises considerably with elevated keeper dimension. As defined in part nine. 1, the massive pace and effort penalty incurred to extend the noise immunity in SD circuits is because of the static keeper present force within the overview section. As proven in determine nine. eight, the NML of SD and 0 physique biased DVTVK raises by way of 34% because the KPR is elevated from zero. 6 to two. 2. The opposed impression of elevated keeper dimension at the hold up and gear features is considerably reduce for DVTVK compared to SD. As proven in determine nine. eight, the evaluate hold up and tool dissipation of SD (DVTVK) are elevated through three. eight (1. 6) occasions and a pair of. 6 (1. five) occasions, respectively, for a 34% noise immunity development because the KPR is elevated from zero. 6 to two. 2. The PDP of SD (DVTVK) raises 10 (2. five) instances for a KPR of two. 2 compared to a KPR of zero. 6. because the rivalry present is considerably lowered with the variable threshold voltage keeper procedure, the width of the keeper transistor in a DVTVK circuit will be elevated with no degrading the hold up and gear features in comparison to an SD circuit.