Between Phonology and Phonetics: Polish Voicing

By Eugeniusz Cyran

For many years, the voicing method of Polish has been on the middle of a heated theoretical debate pertaining to laryngeal phonology because it encompasses a variety of phenomena that represent the center of this debate, resembling ultimate Obstruent Devoicing, Regressive Voice Assimilation, and revolutionary Voice Assimilation. As examine into laryngeal phonology progresses on quite a few fronts, it turns into extra seen that a huge element of the phenomena in query have phonetic or implementational conditioning, hence proscribing the position of phonology even extra. The version awarded here's one within which phonology, phonetic interpretation, and phonetics locate their respective houses. satirically, through setting apart those 3 degrees of description, we want to combine the disparate threads of recent examine of sound styles into one sound procedure.

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Wiatr zachodni [vjadr zaxɔdɲi] ‘western wind’. This rule is prolonged in Cracow-Poznań Polish (CP) to ‘Voiced Segment-to-Consonant Spreading’ to account for the CP sandhi voicing mentioned in bankruptcy three. Obstruentization /w/ →/v/, /rj/ →/ӡ/ Default Filling (p. forty three) A consonant that is unspecified for voicing gets [–voice]. This issues either obstruents and sonorants. allow us to illustrate the above with an instance derivation of tchu [txu] ‘breath, gen. sg. ’ which alternates with dech [dєx] ‘breath, nom. sg. ’, therefore suggesting that the 1st obstruent is lexically voiced. The underlying voiced /d/ in tchu is by means of an empty V, that's deleted by means of rule if now not by way of one other empty V. whilst the empty V is found in the subsequent syllable, then the 1st V is discovered as [є], a phenomenon referred to as the decrease Rule (e. g. , Gussmann 1980). as soon as the empty V is deleted, the previous obstruent ceases to be an onset and its voice autosegment has to be delinked too. 70 (13) The delinking that is saw within the moment level (13b) is because of the Voice Licensing precept which licenses the voice autosegment merely in syllabified consonants. ultimately, a rule of Obstruent-to-Obstruent unfold applies, which operates in the new double onsets. ultimate obstruent devoicing is the same in all information other than that the [–voice] is assigned through Default Filling instead of by means of spreading. Returning now to the matter of innovative Voice Assimilation, the capability bleeding courting among PVA and RVA within the cluster of obstruents is shunned through resorting to representing the suitable fricatives as sonorants /rj/ and /w/ respectively. The sonorants are become obstruents on the suitable second in phonological derivation through context-free principles /rj/ → /ӡ/ and /w/ → /v/ respectively. a marginally tailored derivation of krze [kʃє] ‘ice floe, dat. ’ is illustrated lower than. (14a) illustrates the degree after [+voice] licensing within the sonorant yet earlier than empty vowel deletion and palatalization of /r/. The latter methods produce level (14b). Later, the context-free rule turns /rj/ into /ӡ/. seventy one the hot obstruent series needs to be resyllabified as a double onset. At this element, contrastive voice autosegments can't be approved and for purposes which aren't solely transparent it's the new obstruent that delinks its [+voice] (14d). The fricative later gets [–voice] by way of Default Filling. Gussmann doesn't suggest a rule of revolutionary spreading. nonetheless, within the derivation of grze [gӡє] ‘game, dat. ’ the obstruentization doesn't produce exact voice autosegments, so the 2 occurrences of [+voice] are acknowledged to conflate. (14) therefore, neither revolutionary voicing nor devoicing is technically required. PVA crucially will depend on obstruentization and the resyllabification that this transformation in prestige results (sonorant → obstruent). PVA happens in relation to ‘new’ obstruents, whereas RVA takes impact in relation to unique obstruents as in tchu. The derivation of bitwa [bjitfa] ‘battle’ with the labio-dental fricative is strictly parallel to that of krze.

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