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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Linguistics
Substratum: A language displaced, as dominant tongue, through one other language, e. g. , by means of the language of a conquering army strength, of a colonizing state, and so on. Many linguists give some thought to the linguistic substratum accountable for linguistic alterations within the language which suppresses or replaces it. (Cf. substratum conception. ) substratum idea: the idea which regards the linguistic substratum (q. v. ) because the reason for linguistic or phonological alterations within the exchanging or superimposed language. in keeping with the adherents of this idea, because the audio system of socially, politically, economically or differently subordinate languages followed the language in their conquerors or a language of colonization, or in most cases the language of a culturally or economically extra complex kingdom, problems in pronunciation brought on phrases, even grammatical kinds and structures, to be tormented by under-surface speech behavior. Sudanese: See Sudanese-Guinean. Sudanese-Guinean: A relations of African Negro languages, spoken by way of an expected overall of 50,000,000 folks. the various languages and dialects of this kin were variously categorized —e. g. , Drexel lists 171 exact Sudanese-Guinean languages (in Die Gliederung der afrikanischen Sprachen, 1921-1925), while Delafosse (in Les Langues du Monde, 1924), distinguishes 435. crucial Sudanese-Guinean languages are: Ewe, Efik, Hausa, Mandingo, Mende, Masai, Nubian, Twi, and Yoruba. (Some linguists examine Sudanese and Guinean as autonomous households; others, particularly Delafosse, give some thought to Sudano-Guinean and Bantu to be individuals of a bigger linguistic unit. ) suffix: A formative (q. v. ), which include a letter, syllable or syllables, additional to the tip of a observe to change its which means or to shape a brand new by-product. Suk: An African language, member of the Sudanese-Guinean kinfolk of languages. Suketi: The language of approximately 55,000 individuals in Suket, India; a dialect of Pahari (q. v. ). Sumerian: An extinct language, labeled as Asianic, with none demonstrable linguistic association with any recognized language; it was once spoken in Mesopotamia, from Babylon to the Gulf of Persia, from at the very least 4000 B. C. until the 3rd century B. C. Sundanese: A language spoken by way of approximately 6,500,000 individuals in Indonesia; a member of the Indonesian sub-family of the Malayo-Polynesian kinfolk of languages. superessive: In sure languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Ugric family), a declensional case, having an identical denotation because the English preposition on or upon. improved comparability: Upward comparability (q. v. ). superlative measure: That type of an adjective or adverb which expresses convinced factor possesses a undeniable caliber to a better quantity than the other factor. superstratum: The language of a culturally, economically, politically greater kingdom, or of an army conqueror, brought right into a overseas nationwide or geographical territory and affecting or maybe supplanting the local language of the latter (See substratum ). supine: A verbal noun, often incapable of entire inflection.